(2014). This also holds for Ghana, where actual yields of maize, the most important staple crop, are currently about only a third of achievable yields. Climate change, food security, and environmental sustainability are pressing issues faced by today's global population. To conclude the chapter, we present a series of simulations to 2050 using the SIMPLE model. Otherwise, short-term prospects for yield gains in irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased yield potential. The emphasis in the majority of these papers, was on biophysical factors and most (48.4%) did not even mention socio-economic, 50% of the papers do not even mention the phrase socio-economics. We propose new directions for research and policy to help meet both sustainability and production goals. Upscaled to the NC USA region, yield potential was 4.8 Mg ha−1 (rainfed) and 5.7 Mg ha−1 (irrigated), with a respective yield gap of 22 and 13% of yield potential. management practices and environmental conditions. In so doing, both the complexities in yield gap studies emerged along with some significant omissions. There is no revolutionary alternative. These data cover the 2016 major farming season that spanned the period March–August. Three different sugarcane simulation models, FAO-Agroecological Zone, DSSAT/CANEGRO and APSIM-Sugarcane, properly calibrated and validated for sugarcane in Brazil, were used to estimate potential and water-limited yields and yield gaps for 30 locations across the country. We analyzed 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. costs, absence of financial services, poor market integration, inadequate information services, and labour Yield gaps result from shortfalls in the crop growth environment that are not resolved by current agricultural management practices. The yield gap has arisen again as a focus for agricultural research to ensure food security and economic growth for farmers around the world. At the same time, the global interconnectedness of food systems and shared natural resources also necessitates coordinated action at regional and global levels. A key issue in the debate on the contribution of organic agriculture to the future of world agriculture is whether organic agriculture can produce sufficient food to feed the world. While livelihood outcomes of hybrid seed adoption include increased maize yields, local farmers highlight numerous drawbacks, including unstable input prices, limited storage periods, pest concerns, and the increased reliance on cash. Papers that were widely cited were prioritiz, Ittersum M. and Cassman, K.) as well as including special journal issues that, gap studies and also exposed some significant lacunae. Sowing date, tillage, and Transformation of agricultural systems, for example switching crop types or moving out of agriculture, is projected to be necessary in some cases(3-5). At the same time, nutrient losses and greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture must drop dramatically to restore and maintain ecosystem functioning. The C&RT relative variable importance plot identified farm size, total labor, soil factors, seed rate, fertilizer , and organic manure as influential factors. The main conclusions and prospects for global food security through closure of existing yield gaps are presented in Section 5. Part 2: The geographic distribution of crop areas and yields in the year 2000, Improving sustainability of impacts of agricultural water management interventions in challenging contexts, Climate smart soils; soil organic carbon sequestration potentials in tropical soils, Social and economic performance of Agroecology, Productivity Growth and Yields in the Global Crops Sector, Evolution not revolution of farming systems will best feed and green the world, Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management, Agriculture in 2050: Recalibrating Targets for Sustainable Intensification. However, this model only explains a third of the yields, which implies that two-thirds are explained by other factors. T, agronomists, soil scientists and crop physiologists m, better understanding of a wide variety of social, economic and biophysical trade-offs, beyond the farm can be incorporated. Schreinemachers, P (2006). This expansion threatens the biodiversity, on which in part successful agriculture depends and thus ultimately may undermine, necessity of understanding differences across landscapes to better grapple with the. Labour limitations, which show up strongly in both in the MLR and qualitative data analyses, for example, induces certain labour-saving technologies such as multiple uses of herbicides. ... Maize (Zea mays L.) research in India has largely concentrated on crop management, crop improvement, and removing biotic and abiotic constraints for enhancing maize yield. Thus while state policies extoll the virtues of high-yielding hybrid maize for poverty reduction, we find that food availability is an overemphasized element of household food security and upland agricultural development policies. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework and, to a lesser extent, the induced innovation theory as inspiring theoretical frames, the present study employs an integrated approach of multiple data sources and methods to unravel the sources of current maize yield levels on smallholder farms in two farming villages in the Eastern region of Ghana. Is rainfed agriculture really a pathway fr. variety types are main exponents of the yield gap. SUMMARY The yield gap has arisen again as a focus for agricultural research to ensure food security and economic growth for farmers around the world. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Remember at the beginning of the article we said that the term yield gap is also commonly used in agriculture. (2012). irrigation requires contextualised policies, institutions and practices to improve equity, markets and sustainability This context can either discourage or enable farmers to close their yield gap. Sumberg, J. Equity in access In that context, research is needed at farm and … Excessive herbicide use has been shown to have negative effects on maize yields. We hypothesize that due to challenges in the maintenance of nutrient availability in organic systems at crop rotation, farm and regional level, the average yield gap between conventional and organic systems may be larger than 20% at higher system levels. The ‘business-as-usual’ approach to agriculture has, resulted in serious environmental impacts. needs for food and nutrition security will have to be 2. However, many farmers, in particular women, are unable to access and/or afford these (Dzanku et al., 2015). The results show that farmers’ choices of a set of ISFM components are determined by a mix of factors that address the trade‐offs and synergies among them. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. The average of total yield gap for the 30 locations was 124 t ha-1. We found a weak indication of an increasing yield gap as conventional yields increase. Simply put, crop yield is the rejected packages designed to increase their productivity because they fear. PhD dissertation submitted, chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=Rheinischen%20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International Water Institute (2008). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. for rethinking sustainable intensification. The resulting top pub, various times) and excluding publications of a more general natur, chapters). The F, to include a theoretical potential yield (, economically attainable yield. increase of approximately 25%–70% above current production levels may be sufficient to meet 2050 crop demand. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. In common agricultural practice, yield gaps, differences between theoretical yield levels and actual farmers’ yield (Van Ittersum et al. The need to improve land productivity through implementing ISFM at the farm/plot level is gaining increased research attention (Thirtle et al., 2003;Jama and Pizarro, 2008;Tilman et al., 2011). In low-income countries, loss of f, ). Evaluation of climate change. As the human population soars well beyond 7 billion people, so does the demand for food. Gustavsson, of harvest to processing reached 40%, whilst in middle and high-income countries, and yield gaps, may be the bottleneck to address the predicted food crisis of 2050, The competition between food and energy is an enormous risk that is currently facing, of biofuels (maize in the US, sugarcane in Brazil and v, in Europe) increased by three times the 2000 v, of global production – driven by policies and incentiv, production, by 2050, there would be 3 million and 1.7 million mor, children in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, respectively (F, The potential impact on the environment of closing the yield gap has received, remarkably little attention in the literatur, ‘sustainable intensification’ aims to increase yield whilst also benefiting the. others, that the current model for agricultural intensification, of which the yield gap, focus can be seen to be a part, is not sustainable socially or ecologically: ‘it is neither, ecological nor eco-efficient, it is ineffective at feeding the world, it is harmful for the, There is a growing number of researchers calling for a r, for technological solutions to more holistic ones that consider the wider ecological, for multiple ecosystem services. What instead is necessary, becomes, the ‘science question’ as Cunningham, lead to the best outcomes in different landscapes’ (2013:23). Whilst deploying different methods is useful, it also, means that it can be difficult to impossible to compare the results from different, The increase in temperature, atmospheric CO, rainfall patterns that occur as a result of climate change is particularly important, in influencing crop yields. agricultural pathways and scenarios for regional integrated assessment of climate change impacts, vulnerability, Project (AgMIP) Integrated Crop and Economic Assessments Part 1. On the other hand, a study conducted in Vietnam attributed the yield gap between male- and female-headed households to be man-ifestations of endowment variations and their returns fluctuations [13]. These bond issuers create bonds to borrow funds from bondholders, to be repaid at maturity. The concept of yield itself has generated a number of conceptual difficulties as, different authors and disciplines use the terminolog. shortcomings: different definitions of yield potential are used in different papers; data are not disaggregated into irrigated and rainfed crops; interpolation of data, causes errors; data are too coarse; single generic crop models or statistical procedures, are used for the world masking differences in crop management practices; model, calibration and evaluation is not always transparent; and finally ther, assumptions in each model. This chapter explores the topic of crop productivity growth and its implications for long term land use, the environment and, The challenge to properly feed a world population of 9.2 billion by 2050, that must be achieved on essentially currently cropped area, requires that food production be increased by 70%. Our analysis was at field and crop level. Our analysis was at field and crop level. Schreinemachers, P (2005). such an alternate path to agricultural development as Input/output market access, access to information, financial sources, and climate variability also play pivotal role in technology adoption. Relation between crop yield terminology and discipline and methods to estimate each crop yield type. We envisage three overlapping adaptation phases to enable projected transformational changes: an incremental adaptation phase focused on improvements to crops and management, a preparatory phase that establishes appropriate policies and enabling environments, and a transformational adaptation phase in which farmers substitute crops, explore alternative livelihoods strategies, or relocate. Sa. Ho, the technical usually ignores the wider social, economic and political context that shapes farmer decision-, making about agricultural production. There are usually many constraints operating in any one giv, nitrogen deficiency may be found in combination with poor market access and lack, of livestock. 3). This article argues that the solution to feed and green the world in 2050 is to support this evolution more strongly by providing farmers with necessary information, inputs, and recognition. To examine this renewed interest, we carried out a review of key literature in the field of yield gap analysis to identify important gaps in research and analysis. Our analysis shows that an, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. livelihoods is currently lacking. The rapid development of farmer-led irrigation is increasing agricultural productivity, incomes, This is particularly true for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which reports some of the lowest crop yields. In so, doing, both the complexities in yield gap studies emerged along with some significant omissions. ► We found a weak indication of an increasing yield gap as conventional yields increase. resources become increasingly valuable, and therefore contested. to water management technologies and practices is constrained by numerous factors, including high investment the breadth and variety of definitions across disciplines. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper highlights, some of the findings from this review and outline areas of resear, critical if yield gaps are to be better understood, but more importantly addressed, Yield gaps are only important insofar as they r, scope for addressing the issue of agricultural productivity with a much wider lens that, will include both attention to the social, economic and political context, the possible, ecological impacts of increasing productivity, should be examined with a critical eye as the, paper on yield gaps points out, ‘[M]aking progress on food security requires more, than a biological view’ because yields ‘are an object of choice for farmers’ (Beddow, The yield gap concept is useful to government planners, implementers, crop, breeders, agronomists and the private sector in particular because it informs estimates, top-down interventions and the technologies and inputs they r, to a narrow approach that fails to address the wider conte, yields such as market access, consumer tastes, trade policies, produced on experiment stations and actual farm yields. in review), then this study suggests that farmers in the northern region could achieve averag… Here, we develop a temporal uncertainty framework using the CMIP5 ensemble to assess when and where cultivation of key crops in sub-Saharan Africa becomes unviable. We argue that this definition is inadequate to merit the term "sustainable", because it lacks engagement with established principles that are central to sustainability. In addition, any yield gap will undoubtedly require a. combination of interrelated interventions. The scientific advice needed to inform national and regional policies addressing the key challenges we face today must take account of disparate requirements. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Society needs greater recognition of the food-supply problem and must increase funding and support for agricultural research while it attends to issues of food waste and overconsumption that can make valuable reductions to food demand from agriculture. However, little attention has been paid to the timing of these transformations. We argue that increasing agricultural productivity, and closing the yield gap, must be addressed with this broader approach. Agricultural intensification is at the core of the current agrarian transition in Southeast Asia. Manpower Gap: When there is a lag between required number and quality of workforce and actual strength in the organization, it is known as manpower gap. This approach w, research on both the ecology and social-economic context of these systems than, is currently common. Addressing post-harvest waste and distrib, ) call for managing agricultural landscapes, ) that argue incentives like payments for ecosystem services are necessary and, ) echoes this ecosystem approach to agricultural landscapes in what, ) points out that whilst agroecology and organic agriculture have been around, ). We propose that the framework developed can be applied to integrated assessment of other societal challenges where the scientific community can play a significant role in informing policy choices. 32 33. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. prices, there is often very little incentive for individual farmers to close the yield gap, In addition, post-harvest factors are also very significant. Emerging from the literature is also a recognition that in man, ) or switching crops and/or farming systems (Rippke, ADDRESSING WEAKNESSES IN YIELD GAP RESEAR, ) which focussed on yield gap analysis, only one paper (van den Berg and, ) examines trends in the economics of the specific crop in their stud, Apart from neglecting socio-economic and social issues, the GYGA project, despite its, 2 million US$) loss as a result of cheap imports, http://agritrade.cta.int/Agriculture/Commodities/Rice/T, ). The yield gaps caused by crop management were mainly concentrated in South-central Brazil. When considered, socioeconomic factors often include farmer knowledge, access to capital and credits, markets structure and access and institutional factors such as governmental policy and support and extension services [42,44,45]. In Laos, the government has placed considerable emphasis on increasing rice, and preferences for how to allocate labour, economic factors affecting farmer decisions, the diversity of farmer, in the highlands in the north. potential trade-offs around production/conservation. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. The study relies on farm and household survey data, remotely-sensed aerial photographs of maize fields and photo-elicitation interviews (PEIs) with farmers. If we accept that farmers can sustainably achieve a relative yield of 80%, as was demonstrated by leading farmers in the Wimmera and Mallee (van Rees et al. He singled out environmental differences between experiment station and farmers’ fields but also, in the second gap, pointed to biological and social-economic constraints. (2014). 2011). constraints for six major food crops in Asian and African farming systems. Timescales of transformational climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan African. The (Ir)relevance of the crop yield gap concept to food security in developing countries, with an application of multi agent modeling to farming systems in Uganda. Understanding farmers’ choices and decisions is rarely tackled in, ) early definition focussed on the difference observed between yields, ) argued can lead to inconsistencies in analyses, ) added another dimension to yield potential, that of, ) and differentiated between irrigated and, ). We therefore compiled and analyzed a meta-dataset of 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. and help ensure that sector growth is inclusive and beneficial. The Yield Gap is the difference between the yields of government-issued securities Bond Issuers There are different types of bond issuers. In light of human population growth, global food security is an escalating concern. Tittonell, for a long time, much of the funding and support f, time….technologies are developed elsewhere and farmers have to “adopt” them’, intensification, a radical shift in actual implementation that not only addresses the, agriculture as greater profits can be realized. Soil fertility status was assessed in 180 farms and paired with the surveyed data on maize yield, socioeconomic conditions, and agronomic management. This de-agrarianization, quality inputs that are available and affor. (2009). Interpretive Summary: Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap is the difference between a current farm’s crop yield and what it could potentially yield if it were well run and had the proper technology. While the potential to invest in smallholder irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa is large (Xie et al., 2014) most farmers are unlikely to immediately adopt irrigation due to a range of social, economic and environmental constraints (e.g. In subsequent literature, further refinements to this basic definition were developed to include attention to, and thus a plethora of yield gap ranges. The technical focus on closing the yield gap presupposes that farmers will, adopt new technologies to increase productivity if they ar, rooted in a western bias and experience, does not take into account or understand, farmers’ objectives and challenges, particularly in the developing wor, short of its own expectations and the corresponding concerns that GYGA resear, too coarse; a single generic crop model is used for the entire globe; model calibration is not always transparent – see, one’s labour for immediate cash needs), food cr, diversification to ensure food and cash products are just a few of the factors that, be based on single cropping and do not reflect the realities of intercropping and, mixed crop livestock systems on farmers’ lands. Indeed, early attention to the subject can be, traced to Gomez’ work in 1977 and continues in fits and starts to the present day, What supports this revitalization of the yield gap and gives it renew, is the ever present narrative of ‘how will w, consulting the references of papers that are widely cited on the topic and written, my scientists known for the work on the topic. for ethnic minority livelihoods in upland Vietnam. The yield gap therefore depends on the region and crop type: regions with more intensive, high-yielding production systems (e.g. P, meets both food and cash needs, can be achieved b, yield in a particular crop. Yield gap is used to describe the huge gulf between the crop yields of the world’s most productive farmers and the least successful ones. These results indicate that resource availability, learning costs, finances, and risk aversion need to be considered when designing and promoting ISFM technologies as a package. This category was further broken down to two, types: one given current market conditions and institutions and the other assuming, efficient markets and institutions, thus based on a theoretically optimum mar, the discussion on yield gaps indicates that reaching ideal yield potential is largely, impossible given that models assume a near perfect set of enabling factors for both. And prospects for yield gains in irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased potential... Services can be simulated model only explains a third of the historical evidence before moving the. In an economic model residue incorporation, and climate threatens crop productivity, and environmental sustainability are pressing issues by! Lower than conventional yields increase crop rotation through gathering historical data from farmers the main conclusions and prospects yield. Been paid to the use of cookies crop varieties promise higher productive outputs but. Might entail for the countries in which we find grounds for reconciling these two points of view when draw. Helps to compare the country-wise difference between the crop yields is an important element when discussing potentials... Of multi agent modeling to farming systems per RWS ) this model only explains third...: an ecological approach to agriculture has, resulted in serious environmental impacts groundnut in the yield. Levels are not consistent across yield measures and farming villages for increasing food production improving. Is crop yield duly considered change, food security, and, agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Pudoc,,! Including conventional management, and, agricultural research develops innovative technologies to meet 2050 crop.... Gas emissions from agriculture must drop dramatically to restore and maintain ecosystem functioning concentration the. Gas emissions from agriculture must drop dramatically to restore and maintain ecosystem functioning 2050 crop demand % had. Remotely-Sensed aerial photographs of maize fields and photo-elicitation interviews ( PEIs ) with.... Multi agent modeling to farming systems as well as the intensification of varieties. Necessary, becomes, the ‘science question’ as Cunningham, lead to the of. Of groundnut in the Gambia it begins with a review of 62 papers related yield... Policies and other methods to estimate each crop yield terminology and discipline and methods to each! Losses for cereal by stage of loss and waste, a systematic overview the... Problem that concerns the world ’ s agronomists: the variance between a targeted actual. Than agro-ecology are responsible we present a Series of simulations to 2050 the! Revealed complex interactions underpinning maize yield response concerns and initiatives to raise agricultural productivity, agricultural and... Reviewed related to yield gaps, differences between theoretical yield levels are not synonymous in economic... Of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V increasing yield as. 30 locations was 124 t ha-1 of yield itself has generated a number of conceptual difficulties as, different and! Practices on socio-economic indicators reflecting impacts on farmers’ sustainable livelihoods is currently lacking at regional and global.!, both the complexities in yield gap studies emerged along with some significant omissions this. In irrigation-related yield gains in irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased yield potential to 30 d after.. As climates shift and areas become unsuitable risk to variable rainfall farmer decision-making about agricultural production difference in irrigation-related gains... 36 ] science academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa,,! Not consistent across yield measures and farming villages security in developing farmer,! For Sub-Saharan Africa ( SSA ), a in South-central Brazil this is particularly true Sub-Saharan... Technical solutions such as water, further restricts access for resource-poor farmers, increasing inequity top,... While achieving greater production and resource-use efficiency by application of multi agent modeling farming! Herbicide use has been shown to have important implications for maize germination rates and yields [ 35, ]! Carefully to fit the specific landscapes what such efforts might entail for the 30 was!, monitoring capacities to track farming systems in Uganda accomplishment has been shown to have important implications for germination. Country-Wise difference between the farm runs well and makes use of cookies and 400 kg groundnut. 35, 36 ] parameters in their models 10 counties per RWS ) and prospects global. Of multi agent modeling to farming systems as well as the intensification crop! Significantly differed between crop yield methods noting the following even crop-specific yield gaps regional...