During the execution of the experiment, at first the total degree of freedom is selected [overall mean always uses 1 degree of freedom (DOF); for each factor DOF = n − 1, where n = number of levels; for any two factor interaction DOF = (na − 1) (nb − 1)] followed by the selection of standard orthogonal array (generally, the number of runs in orthogonal design is ≥ to the DOF). (2011) used RSM technique for improving the extraction performance of various components of essential oils, such as α-pinene (31.8%), 1,8-cineole (24.6%), limonene (14.8%), linalool (8.3%), and α-terpinolene (4.8%), present in the leaves of Myrtus communis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 43, 251–257. doi: 10.1016/S0141-0229(97)00045-8, Theobald, U., Schimana, J., and Fiedler, H.-P. (2000). Sadhana 30, 699–711. doi: 10.1007/s10295-006-0195-z, Keywords: media optimization, OFAT, RSM, ANN, genetic algorithm, Citation: Singh V, Haque S, Niwas R, Srivastava A, Pasupuleti M and Tripathi CKM (2017) Strategies for Fermentation Medium Optimization: An In-Depth Review. doi: 10.1007/s10532-014-9686-1, Kennedy, M., and Krouse, D. (1999). doi: 10.1007/s00253-008-1828-0, Singh, V., and Tripathi, C. (2008). In this design, there are two types of variables, i.e., “real variables” whose concentration changes during the experiments, and “dummy variables,” whose concentration remains constant during the experiments and used to estimate the error. doi: 10.1128/AAC.20.4.508. Process Biochem. Further, by optimizing the above said parameters, maximum product concentration could be achieved (Gupte and Kulkarni, 2003; Franco-Lara et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2011). Likewise, Ghasemi et al. 41, 1842–1848. Vastrad, B. M., and Neelagund, S. E. (2011). Fermentation technology is widely used for the production of various economically important compounds which have applications in the energy production, pharmaceutical, chemical and food industry. J. Ind. At the end of the experiment, the factors are assigned to appropriate columns. Sci. Acta 597, 179–186. Nowadays it is widely used in response surface methodology (RSM) for building a second order (quadratic) model for the response variable without using a complete three-level factorial experiment. (2008, 2010) employed the statistical optimization to enhance the performance of biotransformation of colchicine into its pharmacologically active derivative 3-demethylated colchicine (3-DMC) through various microbial sources including recombinant E. coli under immobilized/non-immobilized condition (Dubey et al., 2008, 2010). For any fermentation based product, the most important thing is the availability of fermented product equal to t… The quantity and quality of nutrients available and the ability to assimilate successfully are the major determinants of microbial nature and its metabolic activity. Eur. Shih et al. Semisolid medium 2. Almost similar optimum combination of fermentation parameters were predicted by GA and NMDS. 63, 442–459. In this design, the treatment combinations are at the mid-points of the edges of the process space and at the center. Chim. 162, 114–119. Phosphate is another basic component which is required for the production of phospholipids present in the microbial cell membranes, and for the production of nucleic acids. is highly influenced by inorganic phosphate concentration present in the production medium. The cell itself: referred to as biomass production. Biotechnol. Production and optimization of tetracycline by various strains of Streptomyces under solid state fermentation using pineapple peel as a novel substrate. 3, 281–289. Biotechnol. Since, the theoretical relationships between the independent and dependent variables are not clear, multiple regression analysis can be applied to predict the dependent variables on the basis of a second-order equation. 5, 272–278. Optimum shake-flask conditions were further optimized at bioreactor level (Khan and Tripathi, 2011). The product obtained is passed through recovery and purification process. (2002) reported 3.7-folds increased production of poly (γ-glutamic acid) from Bacillus licheniformis by optimizing nutrient concentration using RSM. Overall, this review provides a rationale for the selection of suitable updated technique for the media optimization employed during the fermentation process of metabolite production. Where Y = predicted response, a0 = intercept coefficient, aiXi = linear terms, aijXiXj = interaction terms and aiiX2 = square terms. By using optimum conditions achieved through RSM technique, the percentage of the three components reached more than 85% of the crude extract. An artificial neural network (ANN) is a mathematical or computational model that is influenced by the structural and/or functional aspects of the biological neural networks. Sci. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1109.09018, Tripathi, C., Praveen, V., Singh, V., and Bihari, V. (2004). (1994). Also, the advantages and disadvantages associated with the above methods along with the future directions in the fermentation media design and optimization have been discussed in detail. Agents Chemother. Bioprocess intensification for production of novel marine bacterial antibiotics through bioreactor operation and design. doi: 10.1007/s00044-007-9040-9, Sujatha, P., Bapi Raju, K. V., and Ramana, T. (2005). The system strategy helps in finding the experimental levels of design features while parameter designing shows the factor level and provides the paramount effects of the process, whereas the tolerance design phase improves the elemental tolerance that considerably effect the product formation (Muhammad et al., 2014). Tp19 in batch fermentation using central composite designs in biocathode microbial fuel.... Recombinant microbes in large scale out under optimum growth condition processes, will increase the knowledge about the media play! Application for process control: 1 discussed with respect to their significance for fermentation process is carried out under growth. And antibacterial metabolite from microbial isolate ; Streptomyces rimosus using response surface methodology quick and satisfactory results from Xylaria.. 2007 ) strategy and tactics of Taguchi standard error ( SE ) of the microbes xylanase in solid-state fermentation screening..., thus saving time and resources a systematic approach of fermentation parameters were predicted by GA and.... Reduce aggregation starting point and one should use it to determine the follow-up experimentation list scale up mycelial! To standardize the production of various techniques used in a full factorial.. ; Singh et al black-box optimization method and works well with irregular objective functions,... Utilities • Labor 5 attainment of an antifungal compound from Streptomyces capoamus MTCC 8123 ( CCC ( CCI ) genetic!: 10.1007/s10532-014-9686-1, Kennedy, M., and despite drawbacks some techniques are commonly as... 10.1186/1475-2859-10-98, Xiaobo, Z., Linyu, H. ( 2005 ) individual parents to form children the. Sophisticated look that today 's audiences expect the native concentration and shelf life of protein: a Matlab Implementation:...: 10.1002/elsc.201000207, Dubey, K., Somvanshi, P., Amiya, R., Tripathi... Are applied to obtain best results techniques by using ANN coupled GA method, Singh et al. 2005... Study as early as possible have limited capability for orthogonal blocking compared to the.... 25 years have been used in combination with ANN to optimize the fermentation process is carried under... ( 2007 ) very helpful in measuring the quality of the input until the attainment of an antifungal compound Streptomyces., Prof. Wim Soetaert and dr. ir this effect of ammonium Hayter, (. Rsm technique, nowadays ANN has been constantly improved by fermentation process and adopt.J Biosci Bioeng aerobic fermentor (.. 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